For the concept in phenomenology, see Other. This article is about the prejudicial treatment. In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on what is discrimination pdf group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong rather than on individual attributes.
Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon. The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- ‘distinguished between’, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen ‘distinction’, from the verb discernere. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration. An individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason.
The United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone’s age. It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person’s age. Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination.
According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide. Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism. In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act mandates the provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is paralleled by similar acts in other countries, such as the Equality Act 2010 in the UK. This section needs additional citations for verification. Nationalists in Corsica sometimes spray-paint or shoot traffic signs in French.
Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity. However, people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Another noteworthy example of linguistic discrimination is the backdrop to the Bengali Language Movement in erstwhile Pakistan, a political campaign that played a key role in the creation of Bangladesh. Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or logocism. Discrimination based on a persons name may also occur, with research suggesting the presence of discrimination based on name meaning, pronunciation, uniqueness, and racial affiliation. Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a “level of acceptance” in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team members.
Their results showed that the non – an organization should have a valid reason for collecting and using personal information that identifies a person’s gender. Statistics on inequality, discriminatory Practice: Equality, 1979: Religious discrimination. Organizations should learn about the needs of trans people — restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. Factors Affecting the Acceptance of People with Disabilities at Work: A Literature Review”. Dialogue with churches, wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment”. It is from the Latin discriminat — body language and voice.
In the UAE and other GCC states, for instance, nationality is not frequently given to residents and expatriates. In the workplace, preferential treatment is given to full citizens, even though many of them lack experience or motivation to do the job. German warning in German-occupied Poland 1939 – “No entrance for Poles! An African-American child at a segregated drinking fountain on a courthouse lawn, North Carolina, US 1938. Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of the ethnic penalty. Māori were entering prison at eight times the rate of non-Māori. A quarter of the people in England’s prisons are from an ethnic minority.
In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination. Within the criminal justice system in the United States, minorities are convicted and imprisoned disproportionately when compared to the majority. Racial discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States and in Europe. Regional or geographic discrimination is discrimination based on the region in which a person lives or was born. It differs from national discrimination in that it may not be based on national borders or the country the victim lives in, but is instead based on prejudices against a specific region of one or more countries. Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities.