Power system analysis and design pdf

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Please forward this error screen to 108. Follow the link for more information. This article is about power system analysis and design pdf of electricity using solar energy. For other uses of solar energy, see Solar energy.

Not to be confused with Solar luminosity. Note that this is for a horizontal surface, whereas solar panels are normally propped up at an angle and receive more energy per unit area, especially at high latitudes. The small black dots show land area required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar power. Photovoltaics were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s.

As the cost of solar electricity has fallen, the number of grid-connected solar PV systems has grown into the millions and utility-scale solar power stations with hundreds of megawatts are being built. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s. Many residential PV systems are connected to the grid wherever available, especially in developed countries with large markets. In these grid-connected PV systems, use of energy storage is optional. A parabolic collector concentrates sunlight onto a tube in its focal point. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists: among the best known are the parabolic trough, the compact linear Fresnel reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector’s focal line.

The receiver is a tube positioned along the focal points of the linear parabolic mirror and is filled with a working fluid. The reflector is made to follow the sun during daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Parabolic trough systems provide the best land-use factor of any solar technology. Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors are CSP-plants which use many thin mirror strips instead of parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto two tubes with working fluid.

This has the advantage that flat mirrors can be used which are much cheaper than parabolic mirrors, and that more reflectors can be placed in the same amount of space, allowing more of the available sunlight to be used. Concentrating linear fresnel reflectors can be used in either large or more compact plants. The Stirling solar dish combines a parabolic concentrating dish with a Stirling engine which normally drives an electric generator. The advantages of Stirling solar over photovoltaic cells are higher efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity and longer lifetime.

Parabolic dish systems give the highest efficiency among CSP technologies. CSP schemes and better energy storage capability than dish stirling technologies. PV and CSP with one another or with other forms of generation such as diesel, wind and biogas. The combined form of generation may enable the system to modulate power output as a function of demand or at least reduce the fluctuating nature of solar power and the consumption of non renewable fuel. Hybrid systems are most often found on islands.

The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce. New York City roof in 1884. 2004 to 2013, albeit from a lower level and involving fewer countries than solar PV. As of the end of 2013, worldwide cumulative CSP-capacity reached 3,425 MW. 2050—enough to generate 4,500 TWh of electricity. List of world’s largest photovoltaic power stations or corresponding article. The 377 MW Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, located in California’s Mojave Desert, is the world’s largest solar thermal power plant project.