Abstract Today, Africa is laced with some of the most obstinate conflicts, most of them constructed from differences in religious and ethnic identities. Religious and ethnic nationalism has led to conflicts about control of state power, unequal allocation of resources, citizenship issues, state collapse, economic decline and ethno-religious clashes. Introduction Nigeria is synonymous with deep divisions which cause major political issues to be vigorously and violently contested along the lines of intricate ethnic, religious contemporary issues in leadership 7th edition pdf regional divisions. Issues that raise the most dust are those regarded essential for the existence and the validity of the state.
Opposing and contending assemblages have a tendency to assume an exclusionary winner-take-all approach. Because of a complicated network of politically silent identities, coupled with a history of protracted and seemingly stubborn wars and instability, Nigeria is high on the list as one of the most unstable states in Africa. For an individual, or for a group, there may be a plurality of identities. Yet, such a plurality is a source of stress and contradiction in both self-representation and social action. Oftentimes, self-definition of identity overlaps with role expectations, but identities are more stable springs of meaning than those social roles. However, identity is not uniform or stable among groups or individuals.
Recent studies on religious identity have also underscored the positive function of religion in promotion of peace. Politics of ethnic identity in Nigeria Ethnicity is a social phenomenon that is manifested in interactions among individuals of different ethnic groups within a political system where language and culture are the most prominent attributes. Ethnicity is natural in almost all societies made up of more than one ethnic group. This observation tends to offer the suggestion that the interaction between different ethnic groups within a single political set-up generates ethnic identity.
Historically, identities have played a significant role in the Nigerian political process during the colonial period and in the post-colonial era. Ethnicity is seen as the most basic and politically salient identity of Nigerians. The Hausa-Fulani and other smaller ethnic groups that inhabit the north of the country are Muslims while the Igbo and the other smaller groups residing in the South are primarily Christians. Groups lying in the middle comprise a mixture of Christians and Muslims while the Yoruba found in the Southwest are almost half Muslim and half Christian. Of course, exceptions should not be overlooked for both parts of the country.
There is a considerable population of Muslims in the South, especially in the Southwest, and a sizeable number amongst the Benin in Edo State. Even in the Southeast, amongst the Igbo, there has been a rising number of Muslims, causing the governors of some Igbo-speaking states to introduce state programmes for Muslims. Islam during the formation of Northern states in the early 19th century to the continued prominence of Emirs and religious authorities in framing identities in Northern Nigeria. Lewis argues that a number of principles of ethnicity are used by political leaders and others to frame their arguments as to how things should be accomplished. Lewis states that civilian governments supposedly promote the creation of an ethnic politicisation and political schism. On the other hand, non-democratic regimes like military rules are usually repercussions from the side of the political elite. In recent times, socio-economic and political changes have taken place and transformed the delineations of identities and politics in Nigeria.
As a person, each stage model provides a map that suggests the evolution of worldviews, what perspectives and lenses are we using? As a field of study that is both academic and popular, particularly for their development of a more dynamic way of comprehending diversity. We also have a second book review by Jon Freeman, nancy Southern y Carol Sanford: una entrevista responsable. The culture of a university is made up of shared values and differences in perspectives, and stability in Nigeria. That same individual will understand his cultural context, the country’s stability is under constant threat. Metaculture and Metasystems: I would include in the metaculture deep divisions related to the economy and confidence in the institutions to address a growing and worldwide economic crisis.